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Friday, May 14, 2010

Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a common disease. It is estimated that over 16 million are already caught with diabetes, and 5.4 million diabetics are not aware of the existing disease.  

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder where in human body does not produce or properly uses insulin, a hormone that is required to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by constant high levels of blood glucose (sugar). Human body has to maintain the blood glucose level at a very narrow range, which is done with insulin and glucagon. The function of glucagon is causing the liver to release glucose from its cells into the blood, for the production of energy.

There are three main types of diabetes:
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Gestational diabetes
Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes impede a person’s carefree life. When breakdown of glucose is stopped completely, body uses fat and protein for producing the energy. Due to this mechanism symptoms like polydipsia, polyuria, polyphegia, and excessive weightloss can be observed in a diabetic. Desired blood sugar of human body should be between 70 mg/dl -110 mg/dl at fasting state. If blood sugar is less than 70 mg/dl, it is termed as hypoglycemia and if more than 110 mg /dl, it’s hyperglycemia.

Diabetes is the primary reason for adult blindness, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), gangrene and amputations. Overweight, lack of exercise, family history and stress increase the likelihood of diabetes. When blood sugar level is constantly high it leads to kidney failure, cardiovascular problems and neuropathy. Patients with diabetes are 4 times more likely to have coronary heart disease and stroke. In addition, Gestational diabetes is more dangerous for pregnant women and their fetus.

Though, Diabetes mellitus is not completely curable but, it is controllable to a great extent. So, you need to have thorough diabetes information to manage this it successfully. The control of diabetes mostly depends on the patient and it is his/her responsibility to take care of their diet, exercise and medication. Advances in diabetes research have led to better ways of controlling diabetes and treating its complications. Hence they include:-
  • New improved Insulin and its therapy, (external and implantable insulin pumps) have advanced well to manage elevated blood sugars without any allergic reactions.
  • Oral hypoglycemic drug, controls diabetes type 2.
  • New improved blood glucose monitor (new device for self blood glucose monitoring), and hemoglobin A1c laboratory test to measure blood glucose control during previous 3 months.
  • Effective availability of the treatments for affected body organs due to diabetes.
  • Better ways to manage mother and its fetus health during the gestational diabetes phase.

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