(This Blog is dedicated to my beloved father Sh. GOVIND RAM)

Welcome to the first Blog on the web dedicated to Liver Transplant in India Information. For A-Z Gastroentorlogy Disorders, Digestive Diseases, "J-Pouch" Operation, Yoga, Naturopathy,& Ayurvedic Treatments, Visit: http: //anshugpta.blogspot.com, For Healthy Life Style, Beauty Tips, Fashion Tips, Yoga, Naturopathy, Ayurvedic & Medical Knowledge, Herbal Remedies, Ayurvedic Herbs, Natural Cosmetics, Rejuvenation Therapies, Herbal Diet, Meditation, Yoga Styles, Men's Health & Women's Health Topics, Health Calculators and more.. Visit: http://yourhealthinformation.blogspot.com

Advertise Now

Blog Archive

Can't Find What You're Looking For?

Tuesday, January 22, 2008

Glossary of Liver Terms

ABSORPTION
the degree and speed at which a drug enters the bloodstream from the small intestine
ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS (ATN)
reversible kidney damage resulting in delayed kidney function. Among other factors, it may be caused by quality of donor organ, time of organ storage before transplantation, or medications to prevent rejection.

ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE
an enzyme produced by liver (and other) cells; elevated blood levels of this substance may indicate abnormal function of the liver or other organs


ALLOGRAFT (allogenetic graft or homograft)
a graft between two individuals who are of the same species (eg. human) but have genetic differences

ANTACID
a drug that aids in protecting the digestive system and relieves heartburn and digestive discomfort

ANTIBODY
a protein produced by the body to eliminate foreign substances, such as bacteria

ANTIGEN
a foreign molecule or substance, such as a transplant, that triggers an immune response. This response may be the production of antibodies, which, in turn, try to inactivate or destroy the antigen (transplanted organ)

ANESTHETIC
medication that reduces pain by dulling sensation

ARTERIOGRAM
an x-ray of the arteries taken with the aid of a dye

ASCITES
excess fluid in the abdomen

ATHEROSCLEROSIS
a buildup of fats in the lining of the arteries that may interfere with the flow of blood

B Cell
a specialized white blood cell responsible for the body's immunity. B cells play a central role in antibody production

BACTERIA
small organisms (germs) that can cause disease

BILIARY STENOSIS
narrowing or constriction of a bile duct

BILIARY TREE
all passageways inside and outside the liver that carry bile to the intestines

BILE
a fluid produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine to help absorb dietary fats

BILE DUCTS
the tubes through which bile flows

BILE LEAK
a hole in the bile-duct system that causes bile to spill into the abdominal cavity

BILIRUBIN
an orange-colored substance in bile produced by the breakdown of red blood cells

BIOAVAILABILITY
a measure of how much of an administered drug is absorbed into the bloodstream, actually reaching the intended site of action in the body. For example, medicine is absorbed from the GI tract, travels through the bloodstream, and reaches the organ tissues, where it works to fight infection, prevent rejection, etc.

BIOPSY
the removal and examination of tissue for diagnosis

BLADDER
the part of the urinary tract that receives urine from the kidneys and stores it until urination

BLOOD UREA NITROGEN
a byproduct of protein breakdown in the body

BRAIN DEATH
when the brain has permanently stopped working, as determined by a neurological surgeon, artificial support systems may maintain functions such as heartbeat and respiration for a few days

BUN
BUN stands for blood urea nitrogen, a waste product normally excreted by the kidney. Your BUN value represents how well the kidneys function

CADAVERIC DONOR
an individual who has recently died of causes that do not affect the function of an organ to be transplanted. Either the person or the person's family has generously offered organs and/or tissues for transplantation

CELLCEPT®
an immunosuppressive drug used with other immunosuppressants to prevent the rejection of the transplanted organ. Also known by its chemical name, myophenolate mofetil

CHOLESTEROL
a form of fat that performs necessary functions in the body but can also cause heart disease; cholesterol is found in animal foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products

CIRRHOSIS
a disease causing irreversible scarring of the liver

CYCLOSPORINE
the immunosuppressive ingredient in Neoral® (cyclosporine capsules and oral solution for microemulsion) and Sandimmune® (cyclosporine), an earlier form of cyclosporine. Neoral® and Sandimmune are not bioequivalent and cannot be used interchangeably without physician supervision

CMV (CYTOMEGALO VIRUS)
a virus infection that is very common in transplant recipients; it can affect the lungs and other organs as well; a member of the family of herpes viruses

COAGULATION
blood clotting

CORTICOSTEROIDS
a category of immunosuppressive medications that includes prednisone and prednislone

CREATININE
a substance found in blood and urine; it results from normal body chemical reactions; high blood creatinine levels are a sign of depressed kidney function

DETOXIFY
to change a harmful substance into a safer form

DIABETES
a disease in which patients have high levels of sugar in their blood

DIALYSIS
the process of cleansing and achieving chemical balance in the blood of patients whose kidneys have failed. Dialysis may refer to hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis (PD)

DIASTOLIC
the bottom of two blood pressure numbers, which measures blood pressure when the heart is at rest

EDEMA
excess fluid in body tissues; swelling of the ankles, for example, is a sign of edema

ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
a recording of the electrical activity of the heart

ELECTROLYTE
generally refers to the dissolved form of a mineral such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorine, etc.

ENZYME
a protein made in the body and capable of changing a substance from one form to another

FETUS
a human embryo in the mother's uterus

GALLBLADDER
a muscular sac attached to the liver; stores bile

GASTROENTEROLOGIST
a physician who specializes in the care of the digestive tract

GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY
enlargement of the gums. It is a common side effect of cyclosporine therapy, but can be managed with good oral hygiene

GLUCOSE
a type of sugar found in the blood

GRAFT
an organ or tissue that is transplanted

GRAFT SURVIVAL
when a transplanted tissue or organ is accepted by the body and functions properly. The potential for graft survival is increased when the recipient and donor are closely matched, and when immunosuppressive therapy is used

HELPER T CELL
the specialized white blood cell that tells other parts of the immune system to combat infection or foreign material

HEMATOCRIT
a measure of the red-blood-cell content of blood

HEMODIALYSIS
a method of dialysis in which blood is purified by circulating through an apparatus outside the body (sometimes called an "artificial kidney")

HEPATIC
relating to the liver

HEPATOLOGIST
a physician who studies the liver and treats liver disease

HEPATOMEGALY
an enlarged liver

HERPES
a family of viruses that infect humans; herpes simplex causes lip and genital sores; herpes zoster causes shingles

HIRSUTISM
an excessive increase in hair growth - especially male-pattern hair growth in a female. Hirsutism is a common side effect of corticosteroids and can also occur with cyclosporine therapy, but is easily treated with depilatory creams or other methods of hair removal

HISTOCOMPATIBILITY
the examination of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in a patient, often referred to as "tissue typing" or "genetic matching". Tissue typing is routinely performed for all donors and recipients in kidney and pancreas transplantation to help match the donor with the most suitable recipients. This helps to decrease the likelihood of "rejecting" the transplanted organ.

HLA (human leukocyte antigens) system
genetically determined series of antigens that are present on human white blood cells (leukocytes) and tissues

HYPERTENSION
high blood pressure

IMMUNE RESPONSE
any defensive reaction to foreign material by the immune system

IMMUNE SYSTEM
the system that protects the body from invasion by foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses, and from cancer cells

IMMUNITY
a condition of being able to resist a particular infectious disease

IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS
medications given to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ

IMURAN®
an immunosuppressive drug used with other immunosuppressive drugs to help prevent the rejection of a transplanted organ. Also known by its chemical name, azathioprine

IV, or INTRAVENOUS
refers to giving medicines or fluids directly through a vein

IV CATHETER
a small needle with a hollow tube inserted into a vein and used to give medicines or fluids

JAUNDICE
yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by excess bile products in the blood

KIDNEY
one of the two kidney-bean-shaped organs located on both sides of the spine, just above the waist. They rid the body of waste materials and maintain fluid balance through the production of urine

LIVER ENZYMES
substances produced by the liver and released into the blood; these are measured to assess liver function

LIVING-RELATED DONOR (LRD)
a blood relative who donates an organ

MATCH
the compatibility between recipient and donor. In general, the more closely the donor and recipient "match", the greater the potential for a successful transplant

MICROEMULSION
a suspension or mixture of tiny droplets of one liquid in a second liquid, such as the smooth mixture that is formed when Neoral® (cyclosporine capsules and oral solution for microemulsion) combines with fluids in the digestive system

NEPHROLOGIST
a physician who studies the kidney and treats kidney disease

NEUTROPHIL
a type of white blood cell

NONCOMPLIANCE
failure to follow the instructions of one's health care providers, such as not taking medicine as prescribed or not showing up for clinic visits

ORALLY
by mouth

ORGAN PRESERVATION
between organ procurement and transplant, organs require special methods of preservation to keep them viable. The length of time that organs and tissues can be kept outside the body varies, depending on the organ, the preservation fluid and the temperature.

ORGAN PROCUREMENT ORGANIZATION (OPO)
OPO's serve as the integral link between the potential donor and recipient and are accountable for the retrieval, preservation and transportation of organs for transplantation. All OPOs are UNOS members.

ORGAN REJECTION
an attempt by the immune system to reject or destroy what it recognizes to be a "foreign" presence (for example, a transplanted liver)

PCP
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, a type of pneumonia seen primarily in patients whose immune systems are suppressed

PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
a method of purifying the blood by flushing the abdominal cavity with a dilute salt solution

PLATELET
a small blood cell needed for normal blood clotting

POTASSIUM
a mineral essential for body function

PREDNISONE
a manufactured steroid hormone taken by most transplant recipients to help prevent rejections

PROPHYLACTIC MEDICATION
medication that helps prevent disease

REJECTION
an immune response against grafted tissue, which, if not successfully treated, results in failure of the graft to survive

RENAL
refers to the kidney

RETRANSPLANTATION
due to organ rejection or transplant failure, some patients need another transplant and return to the waiting list. Reducing the number of retransplants is critical when examining ways to maximize a limited supply of donor organs.

SANDIMMUNE®
(cyclosporin)

an earlier formulation of cyclosporine. An immunosuppressive drug used with other immunosuppressive drugs, that acts specifically to inhibit helper T cells, thereby helping prevent the rejection of a transplanted organ. Sandimmune and Neoral are not bioequivalent and cannot be used interchangeably without physician supervision

SENSITIZED
being immunized, or able to mount an immune response, against an antigen by previous exposure to that antigen

SHINGLES
a herpes virus infection (herpes zoster) that usually affects a nerve, causing pain in one area of the body

SODIUM
a component of table salt (sodium chloride); an electrolyte that is the main salt in blood

STATUS
indicates the degree of medical urgency for patients awaiting heart or liver transplants

STRICTURE or STENOSIS
a narrowing of passage in the body

SURVIVAL RATES
survival rates indicate how many patients or grafts (transplanted organs) are alive/functioning at a set time posttransplant. Survival rates are often given at one, three and five years. Policy modifications are never made without examining their impact on transplant survival rates. Survival rates improve with technological and scientific advances. Developing policies that reflect and respond to these advances in transplantation will also improve survival rates.

SYSTOLIC
the top of the two blood pressure numbers, which measures the maximum blood pressure reached as blood is pumped out of the heart chambers

THRUSH
a fungus infection in the mouth

TRIGLYCERIDES
a form of fat that the body makes from sugar, alcohol, and excess calories

T CELLS
a white blood cell responsible for the body's immunity. T cells can destroy cells infected by viruses, graft cells, and other altered cells

T-TUBE
a tube placed in the bile duct that allows bile to drain into a bag outside the body

TISSUE TYPING
a blood test (performed prior to transplantation) to evaluate the closeness of tissue match between donor's organ and recipient's HLA antigens.

URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI)
an infection of one or more parts of the urinary tract

VENTILATOR
a machine that helps a patient breathe

VIRUS
a very small agent (germ) that causes infection

WAITING LIST
after evaluation by the transplant physician, a patient is added to the national waiting list by the transplant center. Lists are specific to both geographic area and organ type: heart, lung, kidney, liver, pancreas, intestine, heart-lung, kidney-pancreas. Each time a donor organ becomes available, the UNOS computer generates a list of potential recipients based on factors that include genetic similarity, organ size, medical urgency and time on the waiting list. Through this process, a "new" list is generated each time an organ becomes available.

WHITE BLOOD CELLS
cells in the blood that fight infection; part of the immune system

Via: USC

No comments: