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Tuesday, April 15, 2008

Medical Book Chapters Online

Here are chapters about Hepatitis X from the online medical books listed above:

HEPATOMEGALY
(Algorithmic Diagnosis of Symptoms and Signs)

... Is there jaundice? Hepatomegaly with jaundice may make one think of hemolytic anemias; toxic or infectious hepatitis; bile duct obstruction due to stones, carcinoma of the pancreas, or ampulla of Vater; and biliary ... DIAGNOSTIC WORKUP ... READ FULL TEXT »

JAUNDICE
(Algorithmic Diagnosis of Symptoms and Signs)

... Is the jaundice associated with hepatomegaly? There is little or no hepatomegaly associated with hemolytic anemias, pernicious anemia, Gilbert's disease, and Dubin-Johnson syndrome. Is the hepatomegaly ... DIAGNOSTIC WORKUP ... READ FULL TEXT »

Hepatomegaly
(In a Page: Signs and Symptoms)

... Hepatomegaly, or enlargement of the liver, usually refers to a liver span of larger than 12 cm at the right midclavicular line or a palpable left lobe in the epigastrium. However, liver size on physical exam is only an approximation and should be... Differential Diagnosis ... Workup and Diagnosis ... Treatment ... READ FULL TEXT »

Jaundice
(In a Page: Signs and Symptoms)

... Yellow skin pigmentation caused by elevated serum bilirubin level is termed jaundice. Bilirubin is the major breakdown product of hemoglobin that is released from dying or damaged erythrocytes. The normal serum bilirubin is less than 1 mg/dL, less... Differential Diagnosis Workup and Diagnosis ... Treatment ... READ FULL TEXT » ...

Hepatomegaly
(In A Page: Pediatric Signs and Symptoms)

... Hepatomegaly represents the clinical appearance of liver enlargement and can occur via five mechanisms, including inflammation, excessive storage, infiltration, congestion, and obstruction. The presence of a palpable liver does not always represent hepatomegaly and is... Differential Diagnosis ... Workup and Diagnosis ... Treatment ... READ FULL TEXT »

Jaundice in Infants – Direct
(In A Page: Pediatric Signs and Symptoms)

... Jaundice refers to the presence of a yellow hue of the skin, sclerae, or mucous membranes. Direct, or more specifically, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia represents a pathologic condition of cholestasis. It is defined as a direct bilirubin fraction greater than 2... Differential Diagnosis ... Workup and Diagnosis ... Treatment ... READ FULL TEXT »

Jaundice in Infants – Indirect
(In A Page: Pediatric Signs and Symptoms)

... Jaundice is the presence of a yellow hue of the skin, sclerae, or mucous membranes due to elevation of serum bilirubin; it usually becomes apparent at a total serum bilirubin level of 5 mg/dL. It is present in approximately 60% of term infants and 80% of premature infants... Differential Diagnosis ... Workup and Diagnosis ... Treatment ... READ FULL TEXT »

HEPATOMEGALY
(Differential Diagnosis in Primary Care)

... Two key words to think of here are histology and obstruction. The analysis of the differential diagnosis of hepatomegaly is best begun with a histologic breakdown of the liver tissue ( Table 37 ). Thus, there are parenchymal cells that can be ... READ FULL TEXT »

JAUNDICE
(Differential Diagnosis in Primary Care)

... Jaundice is not to be confused with xanthochromia, in which the skin turns orange from carotene deposits but the sclerae remain normal in appearance. Carotenemia is often seen in hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus, but jaundice is not usually a complication of these ... READ FULL TEXT »

Hepatomegaly
(Handbook of Signs & Symptoms (Third Edition))

... Hepatomegaly, an enlarged liver, indicates potentially reversible primary or secondary liver disease This sign may stem from diverse pathophysiologic mechanisms, including dilated hepatic sinusoids (in heart failure), persistently high venous pressure... History and physical examination ... Medical causes ... Special considerations ... Pictures ... READ FULL TEXT »

Jaundice
(Handbook of Signs & Symptoms (Third Edition))

...Icterus A yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, or sclera of the eyes, jaundice indicates excessive levels of conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. In fair-skinned patients, it’s most noticeable on the face, trunk, and sclera; in dark-skinned... History and physical examination ... Medical causes ... Other causes ... Special considerations ... Pediatric pointers ... Geriatric pointers ... Pictures ... READ FULL TEXT »

Hepatomegaly
(A Pocket Manual of Differential Diagnosis)

... Palpable Liver without Hepatic Pathology Normal variant Thin or flaccid abdominal wall Depressed right diaphragm (e.g., emphysema) Subdiaphragmatic lesion (e.g., abscess) ... READ FULL TEXT »

Jaundice
(A Pocket Manual of Differential Diagnosis)

... Primarily Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Increased production Hemolysis, intravascular or extravascular Ineffective erythropoiesis ... READ FULL TEXT »

Hepatomegaly
(Professional Guide to Signs & Symptoms (Fifth Edition))

... Hepatomegaly, an enlarged liver, indicates potentially reversible primary or secondary liver disease. This sign may stem from diverse pathophysiologic mechanisms, including dilated hepatic sinusoids (in heart failure), persistently high venous pressure leading to liver congestion (in... History and physical examination ... Medical causes ... Other causes ... Special considerations ... Pediatric pointers ... Pictures ... READ FULL TEXT »

Jaundice [Icterus]
(Professional Guide to Signs & Symptoms (Fifth Edition))

... A yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, or sclera of the eyes, jaundice indicates excessive levels of conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. In fair-skinned patients, it’s most noticeable on the face, trunk, and sclera; in dark... History and physical examination ... Medical causes ... Other causes ... Special considerations ... Pediatric pointers ... Geriatric pointers ... Patient counseling ... Pictures ... READ FULL TEXT »

Hepatomegaly
(The 10-Minute Diagnosis Manual: Symptoms and Signs in the Time-Limited Encounter)

... Darryl G. White and Bruce A. Leibert Approach Hepatomegaly is a physical sign noted on abdominal examination that is present in hepatobiliary disease but is not specific or sensitive to one cause. Defining hepatomegaly... History ... Physical examination ... Testing ... Diagnostic assessment ... Summary ... Pictures ... READ FULL TEXT »

Jaundice
(The 10-Minute Diagnosis Manual: Symptoms and Signs in the Time-Limited Encounter)

... James M. Brian and Cara K. Fox The hepatobiliary system removes bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin metabolism, from the blood stream. Jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and sclera, results from tissue build-up of bilirubin when the hepatobiliary... Approach ... History ... Physical examination ... Testing ... Diagnostic assessment ... Pictures ... READ FULL TEXT »

Hepatomegaly
(Field Guide to Bedside Diagnosis)

... Differential Overview ❑ Acute hepatitis ❑ Chronic hepatitis ❑ Cirrhosis ❑ Right heart failure ❑ Fatty... Diagnostic Approach ... Clinical Findings ... Pictures ... READ FULL TEXT »

Jaundice
(Field Guide to Bedside Diagnosis)

... Differential Overview Conjugated ❑ Viral hepatitis ❑ Gallstone obstruction ❑ Drugs ❑ Carotinemia ... Diagnostic Approach ... Clinical Findings ... Pictures ... READ FULL TEXT »

Hepatomegaly
(Signs & Symptoms: A 2-in-1 Reference for Nurses)

... Hepatomegaly (an enlarged liver) indicates potentially reversible primary or secondary liver disease. This sign may stem from diverse pathophysiologic mechanisms, including dilated hepatic sinusoids (in heart failure), persistently high venous pressure leading to liver... History ... Physical assessment ... Medical causes ... Special considerations ... Pediatric pointers ... Patient counseling ... Pictures ... READ FULL TEXT »

Jaundice
(Signs & Symptoms: A 2-in-1 Reference for Nurses)

... A yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, or sclerae of the eyes, jaundice indicates excessive levels of conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. Also known as icterus, jaundice is most apparent in natural sunlight.... History ... Physical assessment ... Medical causes ... Other causes ... Special considerations ... Pediatric pointers ... Geriatric pointers ... Patient counseling ... Pictures ... READ FULL TEXT »

Hepatomegaly
(The Diagnostic Approach to Symptoms and Signs in Pediatrics)

... Liver sizemay be estimated by degree of extension of liver edge below costalmargin or by span of liver dullness to percussion. In children liver edge may be normallypalpable up to 2 cm below right costal margin. However, this assessmentof liver... Principal Causes of Hepatomegaly Clinical Features and Diagnosis ... Diagnostic Approach ... References ... READ FULL TEXT » ...

Jaundice
(The Diagnostic Approach to Symptoms and Signs in Pediatrics)

... Jaundice,yellow discoloration of skin and sclera, is produced by depositionof bilirubin in these tissues. Increase in unconjugated or conjugatedbilirubin or both produce jaundice, which is visible when totalserum bilirubin is >2 mg/dL. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia existswhen >2... Principal Causes of Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia ... Clinical Features and Diagnosis: Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia(Neonatal Onset) ... Clinical Features and Diagnosis: Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia(Postneonatal Onset) Diagnostic Approach: Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia ... Principal Causes of Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia (NeonatalOnset) ... Clinical Features and Diagnosis: Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia(Neonatal Onset) ... Principal Causes of Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia (PostneonatalOnset) ... Clinical Features and Diagnosis: Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia(Postneonatal Onset) ... Diagnostic Approach: Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia ... References ... READ FULL TEXT » ...

Hepatomegaly
(Nursing: Interpreting Signs and Symptoms)

... Hepatomegaly, an enlarged liver, indicates potentially reversible primary or secondary liver disease. This sign may stem from diverse pathophysiologic mechanisms, including dilated hepatic sinusoids (in heart failure), persistently high venous pressure leading to liver congestion (in... History and physical examination ... Medical causes ... Nursing considerations ... Patient teaching ... Pictures ... READ FULL TEXT »

Jaundice [Icterus]
(Nursing: Interpreting Signs and Symptoms)

... A yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, or sclera of the eyes, jaundice indicates excessive levels of conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. In fair-skinned patients, it's most noticeable on the face, trunk, and sclera; in dark-skinned... History and physical examination ... Medical causes ... Other causes ... Nursing considerations ... Patient teaching ... Pictures ... READ FULL TEXT »

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